Carbon dating science project
Natural deposits are worked by crushing, by gravity and flotation separations, and by removal of diamonds by their adherence to a layer of grease on a suitable table.The following products result: (1) diamond proper—distorted cubic crystalline gem-quality stones varying from colourless to red, pink, blue, green, or yellow; (2) bort—minute dark crystals of abrasive but not gem quality; (3) ballas—randomly oriented crystals of abrasive quality; (4) macles—triangular pillow-shaped crystals that are industrially useful; and (5) carbonado—mixed diamond–graphite crystallites containing other impurities.In 1961 the isotope On a weight basis, carbon is 19th in order of elemental abundance in Earth’s crust, and there are estimated to be 3.5 times as many carbon atoms as silicon atoms in the universe.Only hydrogen, helium, oxygen, neon, and nitrogen are atomically more abundant in the cosmos than carbon.
The single known source in the United States, in Arkansas, has no commercial importance; nor is India, once a source of fine diamonds, a significant present-day supplier.
Carbon is the cosmic product of the “burning” of helium, in which three helium nuclei, atomic number 4, fuse to produce a carbon nucleus, atomic number 12.
In the crust of Earth, elemental carbon is a minor component.
Carbon as an element was discovered by the first person to handle charcoal from fire.
Thus, together with sulfur, iron, tin, lead, copper, mercury, silver, and gold, carbon was one of the small group of elements well known in the ancient world.
Coal and coke, for example, are used extensively as fuels.